Wetlands are ecosystems that are defined by the presence of water. Numerous wetlands are provisional regions between upland and aquatic ecosystems. the amount of water that is present in a wetland can differ momentously.
Some wetlands are always flooded, while others are occasionally flooded. Those that are not always flooded retain saturated soils throughout much of the time that they will be dry.
Wetlands and Climate Change
Wetlands can alleviate climate change. Coastal wetlands such as mangroves forests have the ability to seize and stock huge amounts of blue carbon. They store the blue carbon in the vegetation and the residue below. blue carbon is the major cause of climate change hence why it is important to have wetlands. Blue carbon is released into the atmosphere as (CO2) and it goes on to cause climate change.
How Wetlands are Formed.
There are several ways in which wetlands are formed. Here are some of the ways that wetlands are formed.
Wetlands Due To Flooding of Coastal Lowlands
Wetland formation can be cau0sed by flooding of coastal lowlands. This flooding is as a result of rising sea levels that create broad coastal marshes and these marshes are protected from wave action by blockade islands or reefs. Coastal wetlands are also formed when rivers deposit sediment as they reach the ocean. After that plants will then hold the soil in a way that it is firm against forces of waves as well as tides.
Wetlands Due To River floodplains
These are fom9ed whe0n the erosion process takes place. Also these wetlands formed when sediments are deposited on adjacent lands during floods. Wetlands then form on floodplains, periodic flooding or high water tables provide moisture in these floodplains. The wetlands may experience changes as rivers and streams form new channels. They may also e-experience changes when floods wash the floodplain or deposit new material.
Wetlands Due Glaciers
When glaciers block rivers, scoured valleys, and rework floodplains, they can form large wetlands. Also, smaller wetlands can be formed when large blocks of ice that are left behind by withdrawing glaciers go on to form pits and depressions in the land. These depressions are then filled with water if there was poor drainage in that area.
Wetlands Formed By Nature
There are several forces of nature that can create wetlands.
- Wind action- the actions of wind can result in the formation of wetlands.
- sinkholes – wetlands can also be formed where infiltrating water has dissolved bedrock.
- Earthquakes – they can cause the formation of wetlands due to the fact that they sometimes cau8se land to drop down near the water table or shoreline
Wetlands Created By Humans
Humans can also contribute to the formation of wetlands. Sometimes wetlands are created du-ring dams or highway construction. Other human activities such as irrigation can contribute to the formation of wetlands. There are other things like the restoration of wetlands by governments across the world as well as the creation of new wetlands