There are various plants that are water-loving plants , these plants can be found in wetlands. Wetlands are different and the plants that are found in wetlands are different too. There are two factors which determine plants that can be found in a particular wetland.
- Wetlands that have mostly fresh, salty or brackish (slightly salty) water
- Wetlands that are always wet or switch between being wet and dry- permanent, semi-permanent or ephemeral wetlands.
There are also other factors such as surface or underground drainage, the soil of the wetlands, temperatures in the region that the wetlands are located, the amount o]f rainfall that is received in that region as well as the area’s topography features. Here are some of the plants that are found in wetlands.
There are forested, freshwater and saline marshlands. In inland wetlands, you will find riverine forests, floodplain shrub lands, floodplain swamps, saline (saltwater) lakes and mountain lakes, bogs and fens.
There are three types of inland wetlands that are dominated by different types of plants. These are:-
- Ephemeral wetlands
- Semi-permanent wetlands
- Permanent wetlands
There is unequal flooding as well as extensive dry periods. Plants that are found in these wetlands include lignum, river red gum, black box, coolabah and other plants that flourish in dry areas. These types of plants can endure years of drought.
Semi-permanent wetlands are usually flooded every year. Aquatic plants such as ribbon weed and wavy marshwort are found in this type of wetland.
Coastal and marine wetlands
Coastal and marine wetland is made up of forested, freshwater and saline wetlands.
They comprise of saltmarshes, coastal floodplain wetlands, swamp forests, saltwater lakes, eastern riverine forests, freshwater lagoons, heath swamps, mangrove swamps, and seagrass meadows.
Trees such as swamp mahogany, swamp paperbark and swamp she-oak, are found in these types of wetlands. Also, shrubs such as the swamp banksia, tea trees and ferns are found in this type of wetlands.
Salt Marshes have plants such as marine couch , pigface, sea rush , creeping brookweed and swamp weed, these plants adapt to salt water conditions.
Mangrove Swamps feature numerous types of mangrove. Mangrove is a small tree that grows in coastal saltwater or brackish water. Some of the types of mangrove include river mangrove, large-leaved mangrove, red mangrove and milky mangrove which is also known as the blind-your-eye mangrove.
Marine wetlands include shallow ocean waters and rocky headlands. Plants that are found in marine wetlands include seagrasses such as marine eelgrass and paddleweed, these flourish in salt water.
How wetland Plants Sustain Animals
Plants that are found in wetlands provide habitat for various animals. They also provide places for breeding, feeding as well as hiding.
Shrubs and Rushes
These provide shelter for many birds. shrubs such as lignum are used by ibis and other water birds for nesting. Also, cumbungi and Juncus, rushes are used by swamp hens and ducks.
There are living and dead trees. All of these provide shelter to various animals.